Small Business Accounting 101

Starting and running a small business can be an exciting journey, but it also comes with its fair share of challenges, especially when it comes to managing finances. Small business owners often wear many hats, and one of the most crucial roles they play is that of an accountant. Understanding the basics of small business accounting is essential for making informed financial decisions and ensuring the long-term success of your company. In this blog post, we’ll explore the fundamentals of small business accounting to help you navigate this crucial aspect of entrepreneurship.


Step 1: Choose the Right Accounting Method

The first step in small business accounting is choosing the right accounting method for your business. There are two primary methods to consider:

  1. Cash Basis Accounting: This method records transactions when money changes hands. It’s simple and suitable for small businesses with straightforward finances.
  2. Accrual Basis Accounting: This method records transactions when they occur, regardless of when the money changes hands. It’s more complex but provides a more accurate picture of your business’s financial health.

The method you choose will impact your financial statements, so it’s essential to select the one that aligns with your business’s needs and goals. For more detailed information on how to choose which accounting method is right for your business, check out our podcast episode dedicated to this topic!

Listen Now: How to Choose: Cash Basis vs. Accrual Basis Accounting


Step 2: Create a Chart of Accounts

A chart of accounts is a structured list of all the accounts in your business’s general ledger. It categorizes your financial transactions into various accounts, making it easier to track income, expenses, assets, and liabilities. Common accounts include:

Revenue: Sales, services, and other sources of income.
Expenses: Costs related to running your business, such as rent, utilities, and salaries.
Assets: Tangible and intangible items owned by your business, like equipment, inventory, and accounts receivable.
Liabilities: Debts and obligations, such as loans and unpaid bills.

For a full guide on how to create a chart of accounts for your business, check out our podcast episode dedicated to this topic! 

Listen Now! How To Create a Chart of Accounts
Check out or sample Chart of Accounts! Free Download: Sample Chart of Accounts


Step 3: Keep Accurate Records

Maintaining accurate and up-to-date records is the backbone of small business accounting. Consider using accounting software or hiring a professional bookkeeper to help with this task. Here’s what you should track:

Income: Record all sources of revenue, including sales, interest, and investments.
Expenses: Document all business-related expenses, keeping receipts and invoices organized.
Bank Statements: Regularly reconcile your bank statements to ensure all transactions are accounted for.
Tax Records: Keep meticulous records for tax purposes, including deductions and credits.


Step 4: Prepare Financial Statements

Small business owners should become familiar with three key financial statements:

  1. Income Statement (Profit and Loss Statement): This statement summarizes your business’s revenue, expenses, and profit or loss over a specific period. It provides a snapshot of your business’s financial performance.
  2. Balance Sheet: The balance sheet shows your business’s assets, liabilities, and equity at a particular point in time. It helps you understand your business’s overall financial health.
  3. Cash Flow Statement: This statement tracks the flow of cash in and out of your business. It’s crucial for managing cash flow effectively and avoiding financial pitfalls.


Step 5: Monitor Your Financial Health

Regularly reviewing your financial statements is essential for understanding your business’s financial health and making informed decisions. Look for trends, identify areas for improvement, and adjust your business strategies accordingly.


Small business accounting may seem daunting, but with the right knowledge and tools, it becomes manageable and even empowering. By choosing the right accounting method, creating a chart of accounts, keeping accurate records, preparing financial statements, and monitoring your financial health, you’ll be well-equipped to navigate the financial aspects of your small business successfully. Remember that seeking professional guidance from an accountant or bookkeeper is always an option, especially as your business grows. With sound financial management, you can pave the way for long-term success and growth in your entrepreneurial journey.

About the author, Amanda Hendren

Amanda Hendren is a seasoned professional with over 10 years of expertise in bookkeeping, Human Resources, and payroll management. As the CEO of Accountable Numbers, she leads a team of dedicated professionals in providing comprehensive financial services to businesses of all sizes. She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Accounting and a Master’s degree in Business Administration.

Amanda's passion for numbers and meticulous attention to detail have been instrumental in helping her clients maintain accurate and organized financial records. Her extensive knowledge and practical experience in accounting enable her to deliver strategic financial guidance that helps businesses optimize their operations and achieve their financial goals.

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